THE EVENTS THOSE MAKES HISTORY

Monday, May 3, 2010

1900-1905





1900
1900 Bernhard von Bulow, German Chancellor - Bernard Von Bulow succeeded Chlodwig Karl Hohenlohe as Chancellor of Germany. Von Bulow, a Prussian politician, initiated an aggressive foreign policy that eventually led to war.

1900 Boxer Rebellion -The Boxers called themselves "I Ho Ch'uan," and their goal was the removal of foreign influence from China. At the beginning of that year, the Boxers began to attack and kill foreigners throughout China. In June, foreign troops captured the Chinese coastal port at Taku. At that point, the Boxers entered Peking and merged with the Imperial Army. The Imperial government, under the control of the Dowager Empress Tzu Hsi, declared war on all foreigners. The army, together with the Boxers, laid siege to the foreign legations in Peking. The European nations, along with the United States and Japan, sent a force of 10,000 men, in an attempt to lift the siege. The force took 52 days to fight its way to Peking. On August 14th, the troops entered Peking and relieved the embattled legations.
1900 The Boer War -The Boer War was fought between Great Britain, the Boers of Transvaal (South Africa), and the nearby Orange Free State. The Boers demanded that Britain withdraw its troops, who were protecting the many British citizens who had come to the country. After achieving initial success, the Boers were defeated by reinforced British troops led by Field Marshal Frederick Marshalls.
1900 Paris Metro Opened -The first 6.25 miles of the Paris Metro was opened. The Metro grew to 157 miles.

1901
1901 Queen Victoria Dies - (1/22/01) On January 22nd, Queen Victoria died. She was 82 years old, and had ruled Great Britain and all its dominions since 1837. At her bedside was her son and successor, as well as her grandson, the Emperor of Germany.
1901 Social Revolutionary Party Founded in Russia - The party was formed mostly by students and was based on earlier Russian populist movements. Its main interest was concern for the peasants. Consequently, the party advocated nationalization of the land.
1901 Boxer Rebellion Ends - (9/7/01) On September 7, 1901, a formal agreement was signed, ending both the Boxer Rebellion and foreign intervention. Under the terms of the agreement, the Chinese were forced to destroy their forts at Taku. Foreign troops were given the task of insuring free passage to and from Peking, and China was forced to pay an indemnity of 330 million dollars.
1901 Australia Created - (1/1/01) By virtue of an act of Parliament passed in July 1900, the Commonwealth of Australia came into being. The Commonwealth was created by uniting six separate former British colonies. There was a population of 3,772,000 (not including Aborigines).
1901 Boers Begin Guerilla War - In the aftermath of the conventional military victory won by British forces, the Boers launched a guerrilla war. The British responded by taking action against the civilian population. At one point, the British acknowledged that they were holding over 100,000 people in concentration camps.
1901 McKinley Assasinated - (9/14/01) While attending the Pan American Exposition, President McKinley was shot by an anarchist. The anarchist, whose name was Leon Czolgosz, was protected by police from a mob who wished to lynch him. President McKinley died eight days later.
1901 Cuba Becomes US Protectorate - (6/12/01) Cuba had been occupied since the US victory in the Spanish-American War. On June 12th, the Cuban Constitutional Convention adopted a resolution that prohibited Cuba from entering into any agreement that would limit its independence. The amendment also stated that, if Cuban independence were threatened, the US would intervene.
1901 Mosquitos Cause Yellow Fever - The US Yellow Fever Commission presented compelling evidence that yellow fever was transmitted by mosquitoes.
1901 Trans-Siberian Railroad Completed -The Russians completed the Trans–Siberian railroad from Moscow to Port Arthur. The railroad opened large-scale access to Siberia.
1902
1902 Anglo-Japanese Treaty - (1/30/02) On January 30th, Japan and Great Britain signed a treaty of military alliance. The treaty provisions stated that if either country were attacked by another country, the co-signatory would maintain benevolent neutrality. If it were attacked by two or more countries, the co-signatory was committed to go to war on behalf of the ally. The agreement was aimed primarily at Russian expansion. The Japanese and the British felt threatened by the Russian seizure of Manchuria and Russia's claims to the Korean peninsula.
1902 South African Peace Agreement - (5/31/02) On May 31st, the Boers and the British signed the Peace of Vereeniging. The agreement was an acknowledgement of what was already a fact: British rule over South Africa.
1902 Britain And Germany Threaten Venezuela -France and Great Britain had been colonial rivals for much of the previous two centuries. Their last great confrontation had been over the control of Fashoda in the upper Nile region. France, however, realized that if it were to withstand German expansionism, it needed Great Britain as an ally. From the turn of the century, it became the quiet French policy to seek reconciliation with Great Britain. The British were initially cautious.

In 1903, when it was clear that no alliance with Germany was possible, King Edward broke the ice by making a state visit to France. After a return visit to Britain by French President Loubet, serious negotiations were instituted. These negotiations took nine months and covered every area of the globe where the French and the British might come into possible conflict.
On April 7th 1904, an Anglo-French agreement was signed that eliminated all points of friction between the two countries. The agreement served as the basis of an Anglo-French alliance.
1903
1903 Entente Cordiale Established-France and Great Britain had been colonial rivals for much of the previous two centuries. Their last great confrontation had been over the control of Fashoda in the upper Nile region. France, however, realized that if it were to withstand German expansionism, it needed Great Britain as an ally. From the turn of the century, it became the quiet French policy to seek reconciliation with Great Britain. The British were initially cautious.

In 1903, when it was clear that no alliance with Germany was possible, King Edward broke the ice by making a state visit to France. After a return visit to Britain by French President Loubet, serious negotiations were instituted. These negotiations took nine months and covered every area of the globe where the French and the British might come into possible conflict.
On April 7th 1904, an Anglo-French agreement was signed that eliminated all points of friction between the two countries. The agreement served as the basis of an Anglo-French alliance.
1903 King and Queen of Serbia Murdered - (6/11/03) Alexander I Obrenovich and his wife Draga Mashin were assassinated in the Royal Palace in Belgrade by dissident Serbian Army officers.
1903 Kishnev Pogrom-(4/16/03)The Russian town of Kishinev was the scene of the worse attack on Jews in the new century. The town was half-Christian and half-Jewish. The immediate cause of the pogrom, which took place on Easter, was the death of a Christian girl on Easter eve. The old canard was again advanced that the Jews had killed the girl to make Passover matzoh (flat bread).

The pogrom, in which dozens were killed and a great deal more were severely wounded, convinced many that the condition of the Jews in Russia was intolerable. The event thereby gave a great boost to Zionism ( the movement to create a Jewish State in Palestine).
1903 Russian Socialist Party Splits in Two - (8/03) At a meeting in London, the Russian Socialist Democratic Labor Party split into two factions. The first faction, led by Vladimir Lenin, was called the Bolsheviks, and believed that party rule should be restricted. The other group, known as the Menshiviks, believed in a more open party structure.
1903 Turks Massacre Bulgarians - Thousand of Bulgarian men, women and children were killed by Turkish troops. The Turks were in the process of suppressing a rebellion in Macedonia. Their tactic was to kill any Macedonian with whom they came into contact.
1903 British Conquer Northern Nigeria-(2/3/03) The British captured the mud-walled city of Kano, in Northern Nigeria, on February 3rd. The British subdued Northern Nigeria, after a British resident of Southern Nigeria was murdered and his murderer escaped north. Once Kano fell, the leaders of the various tribes of Northern Nigeria agreed to indirect British control.
1903 Panama Canal Constructed - The United States immediately recognized a new regime in Panama. The regime broke away from Columbia after Columbia rejectedthe Hays–Herran Agreement for building a canal. Immediately upon recognition, the United States began negotiating for rights to build a canal across the isthmus. It received those rights, and construction began.
1903 Ford's First "Model A" - (6/16/03) Henry Ford began selling the "Model A" auto for $850. His goal was to manufacture reliable cars at a price all could afford. His mass production methods would soon change the automobile industry, and eventually the world.
1903 Panama Independent from Colombia - (11/17/03) A revolution led by Philippe Jean Bunau-Varilla, an organizer of the Panama Canal Company, declared Panama independent from Colombia. US Naval forces prevented the Colombians from suppressing the revolt. On November 17th, the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty was signed between Panama and the US, giving Americans exclusive rights over the Canal Zone.
1903 First Messages Sent over Pacific Cable - (7/4/03) President Theodore Roosevelt sent the first message across the Pacific Cable. The message connected San Francisco and Manila.
1903 Helium Discovered-Helium, which occurs only very rarely in nature, was discovered in Daxter, Kansas.
1903 "Wright Flyer" Flies -(12/17/03) On December 17th, man's first flight in a heavier-than-air vehicle occured in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The inventors were Orville and Wilbur Wright. In the first flight, the plane flew for 12 seconds for 120 feet.
1904
1904 Russo-Japanese War -The Russo-Japanese war erupted when negotiations over Korea and Manchuria broke down. The Japanese began the war with a successful surprise attack on the Russian fleet at Port Arthur. The port was then blockaded by the Japanese. Russian attempts to break the blockade failed after the battleship Petropavlosk was lost. Russia was also unsuccessful in ground battles with the Japanese, and eventually the Japanese surrounded Port Arthur both on land and at sea.
1904 British Forces Reach Tibet- (9/7/04) Great Britain forced the Tibetans to agree to a series of commercial agreements for the purpose of opening up Tibet to British trade. The British sent a military force into Tibet, encountering significant opposition along the way. Once British forces reached the Tibetan capital of Lhasa, the Tibetans were conciliatory and rapidly agreed to British terms as long as they did not include ceding any territory.
1904 German Put down Revolt in SW Africa-(1/11/04) On January 11th, a revolt by native Africans was initiated against the German settlement in South West Africa. The revolt was led by the Herero tribe. The natives were initially successful, overrunning several German settlements. They killed over 100 German settlers (only two were women or children). The Germans ruthlessly put down the revolt, and within a few years, the Herero population had been cut to 20,000 from an original 80,000 persons.
1904 Roosevelt Corollary-(12/6/04) Theodore Roosevelt announced an addition to the Monroe Doctrine. He stated, in referring to South and Central America, that the United States had the right and the need to intervene in the internal affairs of states in the Western hemisphere if they did not get their own affairs in order.
1904 Treaty Between Bolivia and Chile -From 1879 to 1884, the War of the Pacific had taken place between Chile and Bolivia. The war ended in a truce. In 1904, a full treaty was signed. Under the treaty, final disposition of the border was made between the two countries.
1904 US Takes Charge of Dominican Republic Finances- In October 1904, the United States took over the finances of the Dominican Republic, a country in virtual bankruptcy. This was the first of what turned out to be a number of US interventions in Caribbean affairs that related to finances.
1904 NY Subway Opens -(10/27/04) The first section of the New York Subway system was opened. The first section operated between City Hall and 145th Street.
1905
1905 Revolt in Russia -(1/5/05) On January 22nd, the First Russian Revolution broke out. Two hundred thousand Russian workers marched on the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg and were fired upon by Czarist troops. Several hundred of the demonstrators were killed. In the ensuing months, demonstrations took place throughout Russia, including a revolt by members of the Russian Navy. Czar Nicholas decreed the establishment of a Duma, an elected parliament, to act as an advisory body to the Czar.
1905 Norway Seperates From Sweden - (6/7/05) Norway's Parliament, the Storting, voted to declare the dissolution of the Union with Sweden. A plebiscite was held and the Norwegian people approved the dissolution. The Swedes went along with the decision. Haakon VII became the new King of Norway.
1905 Sun Yat-sen Founds Union - (8/20/05) Sun Yat-sen was the leader of the Chinese Nationalists. He issued the San Min Chu I. The San Min Chu were a series of three principles calling for nationalism, democracy, and livelihood for the people of China.
1905 Japanese Victorious- (5/27/05) The Japanese completely defeated the Russian Navy in the Battle of the Straits of Tsushima. The Russian Baltic fleet, led by Admiral Rozhdestvenski, had been at sea for six months. It was defeated by a fleet led by Japanese Admiral Tojo. The Japanese sunk almost the entire Russian fleet. The magnitude of the Japanese victory led the Russians to agree to almost all Japanese demands made at the negotiating table. An agreement was reached in Portsmouth under the aegis of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt.
1905 Tangiers Crisis -Morocco was the last independent nation in northern Africa. On May 18th, a wealthy American retiree and his English stepson were kidnapped by forces opposed to the Sultan of Morocco. The incident began a scramble among the European powers to gain control over the country. France laid the first claim. In a surprise move, the Germans opposed the French claim. On March 31st, the German Kaiser made a visit to Tangiers and, in a hasty speech at the dock, stated that Germany continued to recognize the Sultan as the independent ruler of Morocco. The crisis began and fears of imminent war spread. The crisis was defused at the Alge├žiras Conference convened in January 1906.
1905 Theory of Relativity Published -(6/30/05) Albert Einstein, who at the time was a German physicist living in Switzerland, published the Theory of Relativity.
1905 Russo-Japanese Peace - (9/5/05) President Roosevelt acted as the mediator in peace talks between the Russians and the Japanese to conclude their war, which Japan had won. President Roosevelt was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts. US mediation was another sign of emerging US power in the world.

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